Sound Description FAQ
I’m no fan of flowery decorative word practice but I have been meaning to edit various lists for a while now and post something that may help some while reading/writing headphone/iem reviews. I was talking to Cptnodegard on #abi IRC this morning and while we were describing headphone sounds to storm terms “thunderous bass, hailing mids, windy highs, light rain, highs in the upper 30s, northeast winds 5 to 10 mph, ...” I decided to post something at least. Sure I’m not crazy about these swanky terms as many others and find more down to earth descriptions better but if it helps anyone out, what the heck.
This is a work in progress as I pulled these definitions from various websites over the years and combined some from two or more sources. I can not take any credit or give credit to one specific site as there are numerous and I wouldn’t know where to begin. If there’s something wrong with any, you can give a better definition, take credit or want to add to this list please post up and I’ll edit.
Aggressive - Forward and bright sonic character
Airy – Spacious and open. Instruments sound like they are surrounded by a large reflective space full of air. Good reproduction of high frequency reflections. High frequency response extends to 15 or 20 kHz.
Ambience - Impression of an acoustic space, such as the performing hall in which a recording was made.
Analytical - Highly detailed
Articulate - intelligibility of voice(s) and instruments and the interactions between them.
Attack - The leading edge of a note and the ability of a system to reproduce the attack transients in music.
Balance - essentially tonal balance, degree to which one aspect of the sonic spectrum is emphasized above the rest. Also channel balance, the relative level of the left and right stereo channels
Bass - The audio frequencies approximately between about 20hz-250hz.
Bassy - Emphasized Bass.
Blanketed - Weak highs, as if a blanket were put over the speakers.
Bleed - When one part of the frequency spectrum (20Hz-20kHz) is overemphasized to the point that it begins to overshadow adjacent bands.
Bloated - Excessive mid bass around 250 Hz. Poorly damped low frequencies, low frequency resonances. See tubby.
Blurred - Poor transient response. Vague stereo imaging not focused.
Body - Fullness of sound, with particular emphasis on upper bass. Opposite of thin.
Boomy - Excessive bass around 125 Hz. Poorly damped low frequencies or low frequency resonances.
Boxy - The sound of a loudspeaker with audible cabinet resonances. Having resonances as if the music were enclosed in a box, sometimes an emphasis around 250 to 500 Hz.
Breathy - Audible breath sounds in woodwinds and reeds such as flute or sax. Good response in the upper mids or highs.
Bright - A sound that emphasizes the upper midrange/lower treble. Harmonics are strong relative to fundamentals.
Brilliance - The 6kHz to 16kHz range controls the brilliance and clarity of sounds. Too much emphasis in this range can produce sibilance on the vocals.
Chesty - The vocalist sounds like their chest is too big. A bump in the low frequency response around 125 to 250 Hz.
Clear - See Transparent.
Closed - A closed-in sound lacking in openness, delicacy, air, and fine detail usually caused by Roll-off above 10kHz; in contrast to Open.
Congested - Smeared, confused, muddy, and flat; lacking transparency.
Colored - Having timbres that are not true to life. Non flat response; peaks or dips.
Cold - Opposite of “warm” meaning it has an edge to it and is very midrange present, without body.
Cool - Moderately deficient in body and warmth, due to progressive attenuation of frequencies below about 150Hz.
Crisp - Extended high frequency response, especially with cymbals.
Clipping - a form of waveform distortion - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clippin...clipped_signal
Dark - A tonal balance that tilts downwards with increasing frequency. Opposite of bright, weak high frequencies.
Decay - The fadeout of a note, it follows the attack.
Definition (or resolution) - The ability of a component to reveal the subtle information that is fundamental to high fidelity sound.
Delicate - High frequencies extending to 15 or 20 kHz without peaks.
Depth - Perception of music being produced behind the loudspeakers and inhabiting a reproduction of the acoustic space of the original recording. A sense of distance (near to far) of different instruments.
Detail - The most delicate elements of the original sound and those which are the first to disappear with lesser equipment.
Detailed - Easy to hear tiny details in the music; articulate. Adequate high frequency response, sharp transient response.
Dry - Used to describe a sound devoid of "juice, "which has no decay or reverberant quality (fine-grained and lean)
Dull - See dark.
Dynamic - The suggestion of energy and wide dynamic. Related to perceived speed as well as contrasts in volume both large and small.
Dynamics - normally refers to the volume of a sound or note (softness or loudness), but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece and various degrees of loudness called for in performance. A variation in force or intensity, especially in musical sound.
Edgy - Too much high frequency response. Trebly. Harmonics are too strong relative to the fundamentals. Distorted, having unwanted harmonics that add an edge or raspiness.
Euphonic - An appealing form of distortion that generally enhances perceived fidelity, often ascribed to the harmonic elaborations of some valve amps.
Fast - Good reproduction of rapid transients which increase the sense of realism and "snap."
Fat - See Full and Warm. Or, spatially diffuse; a sound is panned to one channel, delayed, and then the delayed sound is panned to the other channel. Or, slightly distorted with analogue tape distortion or tube distortion.
Focus - A strong, precise sense of image projection.
Forward(ness) - Similar to an aggressive sound, a sense of image being projected in front of the speakers and of music being forced upon the listener. Compare "Laid-back".
Full - Strong fundamentals relative to harmonics. Good low frequency response, not necessarily extended, but with adequate level around 100 to 300 Hz. Male voices are full around 125 Hz; female voices and violins are full around 250 Hz; sax is full around 250 to 400 Hz. Opposite of thin.
Gentle - Opposite of edgy. The harmonics (of the highs and upper mids) are not exaggerated, or may even be weak.
Grainy - A slightly raw, exposed sound which lacks finesse, not liquid or fluid.
Grip - A sense of control and sturdiness in the bass.
Grungy - Lots of harmonic or I.M. (Intermodulation) distortion.
Hard - Uncomfortable, forward, aggressive sound with a metallic tinge. Too much upper midrange, usually around 3 kHz. Or, good transient response, as if the sound is hitting you hard. Uncomfortable, forward, aggressive sound with a metallic tinge.
Harsh - Grating, abrasive. Too much upper midrange. Peaks in the frequency response between 2 and 6 kHz. Or, excessive phase shift in a digital recorder's low pass filter.
Headstage - The perception of the Soundstage while listening to headphones.
Highs - The audio frequencies between about 6000 Hz and above.
High Midrange (High Mids, Upper Mids) - The audio frequencies between about 2kHz and 6kHz.
Honky - Like cupping your hands around your mouth. A bump in the response around 500 to 700 Hz.
Hot - Term used when the treble sounds a bit harsh to the ear.
Imaging - The sense that a voice or instrument is in a particular place in the room
Juicy - Sound that has joie de vivre, energy and life.
Laid-back - Recessed, distant-sounding, having exaggerated depth, usually because of a dished midrange. Compare "Forward".
Low-Level Detail - The quietest sounds in a recording.
Low Midrange (Low Mids) - The audio frequencies between about 250Hz and 2000Hz.
Liquid - Smooth and flowing in quality; entirely free of harshness
Mellow - Reduced high frequencies, not edgy.
Midrange (Mids) - The audio frequencies between about 250 Hz and 6000 Hz.
Muddy - Not clear. Weak harmonics, smeared time response, I.M. distortion.
Muffled - Sounds like it is covered with a blanket. Weak highs or weak upper mids.
Musical (or musicality) - A sense of cohesion and subjective "rightness" in the sound.
Nasal - Honky, a bump in the response around 600 Hz.
Naturalness – Realism
Opaque - Unclear, lacking transparency.
Open - Sound which has height and "air", relates to clean upper midrange and treble. Also used to describe something which has a natural hollow tone with lingering overtones such as that of and very resonant drum that also exhibits high pitched overtones.
Pace - Often assoc. with rhythm, a strong sense of timing and beat.
Piercing - Strident, hard on the ears, screechy. Having sharp, narrow peaks in the response around 3 to 10 kHz.
PRaT - Pace, Rhythm and Timing
Presence - A sense of instrument and voice occupying a place in the listening room. Synonyms are edge, punch, detail, closeness and clarity. Adequate or emphasized response around 5 kHz for most instruments, or around 2 to 5 kHz for kick drum and bass.
Presence Range - The upper midrange, the presence range between 4kHz and 6kHz is responsible for the clarity and definition of voices and instruments. Increasing this range can make the music seem closer to the listener. Reducing the 5kHz content makes the sound more distant and transparent.
Puffy - A bump in the response around 500 Hz.
Punchy - Good reproduction of dynamics. Good transient response, with strong impact. Sometimes a bump around 5 kHz or 200 Hz.
Range - The distance between the lowest and highest tones.
Resolving - ability to separate between instruments and express clear notes. Difference between "detail" and "resolution" is that detail is the psychological effect and thus can be created by accentuated treble. Resolution is the actual information that is passed through.
Rich - See Full. Also, having euphonic distortion made of even order harmonics.
Roll-off (Rolloff) - The gradual attenuation that occurs at the lower or upper frequency range of a driver, network, or system. The roll-off frequency is usually defined as the frequency where response is reduced by 3 dB.
Round - High frequency rolloff or dip. Not edgy.
Rhythm - The controlled movement of sounds in time.
Seismic - Very low bass that you feel rather than hear
Shrill - Strident, steely.
Sibilant - "Essy" Exaggerated "s" and "sh" sounds in singing, caused by a rise in the response around 6 to 10 kHz, often heard on radio.
Sizzly - See Sibilant, also, too much highs on cymbals.
Smeared - Lacking detail, poor transient response, too much leakage between microphones, poorly focused images.
Smooth - Easy on the ears, not harsh. Flat frequency response, especially in the midrange. Lack of peaks and dips in the response.
Snap - A system with good speed and transient response can deliver the immediacy or "snap" of live instruments.
Soundstage - The area between two speakers that appears to the listener to be occupied by sonic images. Like a real stage, a soundstage should have width, depth, and height.
Spacious - Conveying a sense of space, ambiance, or room around the instruments. Stereo reverb. Early reflections.
Speed - A fast system with good pace gives the impression of being right on the money in its timing.
Steely - Emphasized upper mids around 3 to 6 kHz. Peaky, non flat high frequency response. See Harsh, Edgy.
Strident - See Harsh, Edgy.
Sturdy - Solid, powerful, robust sound.
Sub-Bass - The audio frequencies between about 20Hz and 80Hz.
Sweet - Not strident or piercing, delicate, flat high frequency response, low distortion, lack of peaks in the response. Highs are extended to 15 or 20 kHz, but they are not bumped up. Often used when referring to cymbals, percussion, strings, and sibilant sounds.
Telephone Like - See Tinny.
Thick - A lack of articulation and clarity in the bass
Tight - Good low frequency transient response and detail or used to describe a sound which has a short duration within the mix.
Thin - Bass light, fundamentals are weak relative to harmonics
Timbre - The tonal character of an instrument
Timing - A sense of precision in tempo.
Tinny - Narrowband, weak lows, peaky mids. The music sounds like it is coming through a telephone or tin can.
Tone - The sound of definite pitch.
Transient - The leading edge of a percussive sound. Good transient response makes the sound as a whole more live and realistic.
Transparent - Easy to hear into the music, detailed, clear, not muddy. Wide flat frequency response, sharp time response, very low distortion and noise. A hear through quality that is akin to clarity and reveals all aspects of detail.
Treble - The highest or upper portion of the audio frequency range in headphones/speakers, recording, broadcast and playback equipment. Roughly lower treble 7000 - 12,000 Hz, mid treble and high/upper 12,000 - 17,000 Hz (Approximately 5.2khz-20khz). Can be a high-pitched or shrill sound, tone or voice.
Tubby - Having low frequency resonances as if you're singing in a bathtub. See bloated.
Upper Midrange (Upper Mids, High Mids) - The audio frequencies between 2 kHz and 6 kHz.
Veiled - Loss of detail due to limited transparency. Like a silk veil is over the speakers. Slight noise or distortion or slightly weak high frequencies.
Warm - A fullness in the lower midrange/upper bass. Good bass, adequate low frequencies, adequate fundamentals relative to harmonics. Not thin. Also excessive bass or mid bass. Also, pleasantly spacious, with adequate reverberation at low frequencies. Also see Rich, Round. Warm highs means sweet highs.
Weight - A sense of substance and underpinning produced by deep, controlled bass.
Weighty - Good low frequency response below about 50 Hz. A sense of substance and underpinning produced by deep, controlled bass. Suggesting an object of great weight or power, like a diesel locomotive.
Wet Sound - Used to describe tones that are more processed, with a lot of stuff like reverb, chorus, delay, etc. Reverberant sound, something with decay. Dry would be the opposite.
Woolly - Loose, ill-defined bass.
Thanks to contributors and suggestions: JxK, dfkt, WalkGood, lestatar ...
Bleed: When one part of the frequency spectrum (20Hz-20kHz) is overemphasized to the point that it begins to overshadow adjacent bands.
Whoa, awesome work there! Very handy, thanks!
Great reference WG. One that I believe was left out is Hot. DFKT always uses that term when he says the treble sounds a bit harsh to the ear.
WG - you ROCK!!! I gotta study these definitions and use the descriptions to review my personal HP's,...thank you SO MUCH!!!
So... Much... Stuff to read! :p Thanks for this, WalkGood! You are a welcome wealth of knowledge. :)
Awesome, just what I was looking for! Thanks for taking the time to do this, WalkGood. :)
WG, indeed you rock!!!
^ Perhaps. But to have taken the time to distill everything into a sticky here on ABi - well, let's just say the effort is highly appreciated!
Great, great stuff - a consistent vocabulary is invaluable for everyone. :D
lestatar, kudos back at you for helping so much with the Glossary for Newbies :)
Edit: BTW I will eventually delete all the posts here but they still will count on your stats, if there's contributions your nick will be mentioned at the bottom of the page like we did with the glossary ...
Lets add definitions for both "wet" and "liquid". I've heard them used before, but am not quite exactly what the definitions are.
I see "wet" as being a dynamic quality, something with dynamic range and reverb/texture. Kind of the opposite of etymotic's dry sound. Not quite sure what liquid is though...
Edit: I found something: liquid - smooth and flowing in quality; entirely free of harshness
Well, not sure how this applies, but re: "wet" and "dry"...
In guitar terms, generally a "wet" sound is used to describe tones that are more processed, with a lot of stuff like reverb, chorus, delay, etc. Dry would be the opposite - take a guitar, plug directly into an amp, dial down the reverb and have at it.
"Liquid" is tough to describe, but I associate it with "wet" tones, often having a smooth, legato quality.
lestatar added your definition for wet and listed your credit :)
Edit: I also included the other that I found, so if we get some other consensus I'll edit again
Really nice thread!
I was wondering if Sibilance and treble should included :P?
Edit: added one, if anyone wants to correct it please feel free to chime in ...
Does anyone have a good working definition for "texture"? I've heard the word used quite a bit around here and headfi, and never truly got what it meant. Same with "layered" sound. Thoughts?
@WG: Any time! As always, just glad to contribute here :D
Hope they make some sense to folks - great great idea!
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